Pathology is a branch of medical science that involves the study and diagnosis of disease through the examination of surgically removed organs, tissues (biopsy samples), body fluids, and in some cases the whole body (autopsy). Aspects of a bodily specimen that may be considered include its gross anatomical make up, appearance of the cells using immunological markers and chemical signatures in the cells. Pathology also includes the related scientific study of disease processes whereby the causes, mechanisms and extent of disease are examined. Areas of study include cellular adaptation to injury, necrosis (death of living cells or tissues), inflammation, wound healing, and neoplasia (abnormal new growth of cells). Pathologists specialize in a wide range of diseases including cancer and the vast majority of cancer diagnoses are made by pathologists. The cellular pattern of tissue samples are observed under a microscope to help determine if a sample is cancerous or non-cancerous (benign). Pathologists also employ genetic studies and gene markers in the assessment of various diseases.

Types Of pathalogy

Surgical pathology

Surgical Pathology is the most significant and time consuming branch of pathology with a primary focus on examining tissues with the naked eye or under a microscope for definitive diagnosis of disease. Surgically removed specimens are received from sources such as small biopsies of skin, core biopsies for the diagnosis of cancer, and the operating room where tumours are removed. Surgical pathology involves macroscopic (gross) and microscopic (histologic) tissue analysis where the molecular properties of tissue samples are assessed by immunohistochemistry or other laboratory tests. Histological sections of tissue are processed for microscopic viewing using either chemical fixation or frozen section. Frozen section processing involves freezing the tissue and generating thin frozen slices of the specimen which are mounted onto glass slides. Prior to viewing the tissue under a microscope, slides processed by chemical fixation or frozen section are either stained with chemicals or antibodies to reveal cellular components.Autopsy is a highly specialized surgical procedure that is performed by a pathologist and consists of a thorough examination of a corpse to determine the cause and manner of death and to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present. The principal aim of an autopsy or post-mortem examination is to determine the cause of death, the state of health of the person before they died, and whether any medical diagnosis and treatment before death was appropriate.

Cyto pathology

Cytopathology is a branch of pathology that studies and diagnoses diseases on the cellular level. It is usually used to aid in the diagnosis of cancer, but also helps in the diagnosis of certain infectious diseases and other inflammatory conditions. Cytopathology is generally used on samples of free cells or tissue fragments that spontaneously exfoliate or are removed from tissues by abrasion or fine needle aspiration, in contrast to histopathology, which studies whole tissues.

Molecular pathology

Molecular Pathology is a relatively recent discipline that has achieved remarkable progress over the past decade. It emphasizes the study and diagnosis of disease through the examination of molecules within organs, tissues or bodily fluids. Many diseases such as cancer are caused by mutations or alterations in the genetic code of a person, and identification of specific hallmark mutations allows clinicians to classify a disease and choose the appropriate treatment. As a result, molecular analysis is leading the way towards personalized medicine by allowing us to predict a patient’s response to certain anti-cancer therapy based on their own genetic make-up. Molecular Pathology includes the development of molecular and genetic approaches to the diagnosis and classification of human tumours and also to design and validate predictive biomarkers for prognosis of the disease, and susceptibility of developing certain cancers in individuals. The high levels of sensitivity provided by molecular assays allows for the detection of very small tumours that are otherwise undetectable by other means, and will likely result in earlier diagnosis, improved patient care and better outcomes for survival.

Immuno pathology

Test used to diagnose the condition like autoimmune diseases, complement factor / level studies, study of different type antigen, antibodies ,antigen antibody reactions etc.


Biochemistry is the application of chemistry to the study of biological processes at the cellular and molecular level. It emerged as a distinct discipline around the beginning of the 20th century when scientists combined chemistry, physiology, and biology to investigate the chemistry of living systems.

We Conduct a large range of bio chemical testing including LFT, KFT, Cardiac biochemistry(LDH Troponin-I, Troponin-T, CPK, NT-BNP, ANF etc ), Biochemistry related to C.S.F, Fluids(Plural, Peritoneal, Pericardiac, Syvonial etc), Tumor Markers(CA-125, CEA, β-HCG, L.D.H, A.F.P, CA 19.9 ect) , Hormone Assay(A.M.H, T3,T4, TSH, FT3, FT4,LH, FSH, Prolactin,Testosterone etc), Diabetic profile, Urinary Biochemistry , Glycosylated hemoglobin estimation etc.

We also conduct culture and sensitivity of different samples including some special stains.

The study of life in its chemical processes.

Biochemistry is both life science and a chemical science - it explores the chemistry of living organisms and the molecular basis for the changes occurring in living cells. It uses the methods of chemistry,

"Biochemistry has become the foundation for understanding all biological processes. It has provided explanations for the causes of many diseases in humans, animals and plants."

physics, molecular biology, and immunology to study the structure and behaviour of the complex molecules found in biological material and the ways these molecules interact to form cells, tissues, and whole organisms.

Biochemists are interested, for example, in mechanisms of brain function, cellular multiplication and differentiation, communication within and between cells and organs, and the chemical bases of inheritance and disease. The biochemist seeks to determine how specific molecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, vitamins, and hormones function in such processes. Particular emphasis is placed on the regulation of chemical reactions in living cells.

An essential science

Biochemistry has become the foundation for understanding all biological processes. It has provided explanations for the causes of many diseases in humans, animals, and plants. It can frequently suggest ways by which such diseases may be treated or cured.

A practical science

Because biochemistry seeks to unravel the complex chemical reactions that occur in a wide variety of life forms, it provides the basis for practical advances in medicine, veterinary medicine, agriculture, and biotechnology. It underlies and includes such exciting new fields as molecular genetics and bioengineering.

The knowledge and methods developed by biochemists are applied to in all fields of medicine, in agriculture and in many chemical and health-related industries. Biochemistry is also unique in providing teaching and research in both protein structure/function and genetic engineering, the two basic components of the rapidly expanding field of biotechnology.

A varied science

As the broadest of the basic sciences, biochemistry includes many subspecialties such as neurochemistry, bioorganic chemistry, clinical biochemistry, physical biochemistry, molecular genetics, biochemical pharmacology, and immunochemistry. Recent advances in these areas have created links among technology, chemical engineering, and biochemistry.

Where is biochemistry used?

Biochemistry has obvious applications in medicine, dentistry, and veterinary medicine. Other applications include:

A part from the above bio-chemistry is also used in Food science and agriculture.


Hematology is a branch of pathalogy / medicine concerning the study of blood, blood-forming organs such as bone marrow, and blood-related disorders and diseases. The word "heme" comes from the Greek word for blood. Hematological tests are used to detect and diagnose diseases such as hemophilia, anemia, leukemia, sickle-cell anemia, lymphomas, and several infections.

We conduct fully automated hematological parameter examination (C.B.C), Reticulocyte count , Pereferal blood smear examination, HPLC , G6PD diffeciency test , Sickling test , Bone marrow apiration / biopsy examination , Blood grouping, Coombs test (Direct, Indirect) etc and many more hematological test.

Hematological diseases and disorders

Hematological disorders can be classified into malignant and nonmalignant blood disorders. Nonmalignant blood disorders include hemoglobinopathies such as thalassemia and sickle-cell anemia, other types of anemias, and coagulopathies such as hemophilia. Hemoglobinopathies are genetic diseases and, apart from α- and β-thalassemia, include diseases caused by abnormal hemoglobin structure, manifesting in mild to severe anemia and multi-organ problems. Clotting disorders with genetic causes also include hemophilia and Von Willebrand disease, both of which are caused by low levels of clotting factors in the blood.

Other nonmalignant disorders like anemia and pulmonary embolism could be caused by various factors, including diet and lifestyle. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura is a hematological disease characterized by an abnormal drop in the blood platelet concentration, which then results in bruising, nosebleeds, bleeding gums, and internal bleeding since platelets are involved in clotting. While idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura is not inherited or contagious, the cause is yet unknown. In most cases, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura occurs in children after a viral infection such as chicken pox.

Malignant blood disorders include leukemia, lymphomas, and myelomas and can affect people of all ages. Malignant hematological disorders could be caused by various factors, including genetics, lifestyle, and environment. Polycythemia vera is a form of leukemia known as a myeloproliferative neoplasm, characterized by excessive production of red blood cells in the bone marrow, which causes blood to become more viscous and increases the risks of clots and heart attack. Myelofibrosis is another myeloproliferative form of leukemia where the bone marrow produces an excess of stem cells resulting in inflammation and scar tissue formation in the bone marrow. Malignant lymphomas, including Hodgkin's lymphoma, affect the lymphatic system and result in abnormal lymphocytes.

Myelodysplastic syndromes refer to a group of cancers where blood stem cells in the bone marrow fail to mature and form various mature blood cells. This results in refractory anemia, refractory cytopenia, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, and various other cancers due to the insufficiency of red and white blood cells in the blood. Multiple myeloma is a form of cancer that results in excess plasma cells in the blood. The overcrowding of plasma cells in the blood causes a shortage of red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells resulting in anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia, respectively. Multiple myeloma can also affect the osteoblasts and osteoclasts that keep bones healthy, causing bone degeneration and fractures.


Histopathology means using a microscope to look at human tissue to see if it has signs of diseases, damage, or other abnormalities.

We are apt in reporting small aize, medium size, large size biopsies including core biopsy, Endoscopic guided biopsy, CT guided biopsy, USG guided biopsy, Skin biopsy, TURP(Prostatic) Biopsy, Curette(Endometrium etc.) biopsy, Colposcopic guided biopsy,different types of incisonal ,excisonal biopsy, Bronchoscopic guided biopsy, Punch biopsy, Bone marrow biopsy,Brain biopsy,Lung biopsy, IUntestinal biopsy,Testicular biopsy,FGT biopsy, Bone and Soft tisue biopsy and many more biopsies.

Histology is the study of tissues, and pathology is the study of disease. Thus, histopathology means the study of tissues related to disease.

A histopathology report describes the tissue that the pathologist examined. It can identify features of what cancer looks like under the microscope. A histopathology report is also called a biopsy report or a pathology report.

This article explains the purpose of histopathology, what's in a histopathology report, and reasons why a histopathology test may be done. It also details some of the ways that results are interpreted.

How Is Histopathology Performed?

Histopathology is performed by a specialist doctor, called a pathologist, who examines tissue under a microscope. Pathologists study samples of tissue in a lab.

Pathologists process and cut tissue into very thin layers, called sections. Then, they stain and examine it with a microscope. Using a microscope, they can observe and document the tissue's details.

Identifying Disease

Histopathology relies on samples of tissue obtained through procedures such as endoscopy, colonoscopy, and colposcopy, or by doing surgical procedures such as a breast biopsy.

Diseases that are diagnosed by histopathology examination include:

Ulcerative colitis
Crohn's disease
Uterine fibroids
Brain tumor
Skin tumor
Non cancerous skin diseases
Intestinal Conditions like Infections, tumors, cancers, tumor like conditions etc.
lung tumor/ diseases
Oral tumors / diseas
skin tumors/diseases
Bone and soft tisue tumors/ diseases
Nerve tumors / diseases
Cardiac and blood vessel tumors/diseases
Eye tumors / diseases
Neck tumors / diseases
Lymph node tumors / diseases
respiratory tumors / diseases
Mesothelial tumors / diseases
male and female genital tract tumors/ diseases
Urinary tract tumors / diseases
and many more diseases condition can be identify and diaagnosed with the help of these different modalities of biopsy and ofcourse in correlation with clinical findings and other diagnostics test.


Cytology is the exam of a cell type, as often found in fluid specimens. It's mainly used to diagnose or screen for cancer. It's also used to screen for fetal abnormalities, for cervical pap smears, to diagnose infectious organisms, and in other screening and diagnostic areas.

The cells to be examined may be taken through the following methods:
Scraping or brushing the tissue surface, such as during a cervial pap smear, skin scrap smears for fungal examination and other studies, Broncho-alveolar lavage(BAL) fluid examination, Broncho scopic brush cytology , Skin and other imprint cytology
Collecting body fluids, such for urine or respiratory phlegm, C.S.F, Synovial fluid, Ascitic fluid , Pleural fluid , Pericardial Fluid, Peritoneal fluid ,Aspirated Fluid material from different types of cyst / tumor / tumor like leasion of the body.
Fine-needle aspiration cytology(FNAC). This is removing cells by drawing them through a fine needle and examination of aspirated material. We conduct direct and USG guided FNAC depending upon the requirement of the patient like USG guided FNAC for intra-abdominal lesion , liver lesion,peritoneal lesion, Ovrian lesion, intra-abdominal lymph node lesion, inguinal lesions, deep seated soft tisue lesions, bone lesions, skin lesions etc.

Cytology is different from histology. Cytology generally involves looking at a single cell type. Histology is the exam of an entire block of tissue.

Molecular Pathalogy

Molecular pathology is a relatively new field of medicine that has been incorporated into patient care within the last ten years. With the progress in genomics, molecular pathology has emerged as a means of studying the causes and effects of diseases below the cellular level. The science involves isolating DNA or RNA from patients' blood or tissue samples to more precisely diagnose and classify disease and finding indicators that help chart and predict the course of the illness or condition. Recent developments have also allowed molecular pathologists to determine which treatments or drugs would be more effective for patients.

It helps to analyze and interpret the results of the molecular testing in order to enable you and your doctor to make a better, even more customized treatment plan.


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